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Corn Syrup vs. Lactose; Let’s get down to business.

by Tiffani Ghere,  Registered Dietician, Board Certified Specialist in Pediatric Nutrition, certified lactation educator and mother to three boys.

“What’s the best formula for my baby?” It’s the question on every new parent’s lips, especially if you’re feeling guilty about even considering formula. Since sugars are a critical part of both breast milk and infant formula, they’re a good place to start exploring before making a choice.

Much more than a sweetener, sugars are actually easy-to-digest sources of carbohydrate that help your baby to grow and thrive, and they’re especially important for growth and development in their first year of life. However, despite what some might claim, not all sugars are created equal. Not by a long shot.

The Gist

As the main source of energy for a growing baby, sugar is one of the most important components of infant formula. But, not all sugars are created equal.

Small Systems

Your baby’s body may be small but it’s smart enough to identify and react to different sugars. This means the type of sugar, which will provide approximately 40% of the calories your baby eats, is an especially important consideration when you’re choosing an infant formula.

Breastmilk Sugar

If you’ve ever tasted breast milk, you’ll know it’s surprisingly sweet. This is thanks to a high concentration of sugar that naturally occurs in human milk, called lactose. Using lactose to provide the same sugar in standard infant formulas is a no-brainer.

Here are a few more facts about lactose:

  • It aids the absorption of calcium
  • It’s a natural prebiotic that feeds the healthy bacteria in your baby’s gut
  • It supports an efficient metabolism
  • It’s less sweet than other carbohydrates used in infant formula.
  • It must provide at least 50% of the carbohydrates (sugars) in European formula. This is not the case in US formulations.

Sensitive/Gentle Infant Formulas

What happens when your baby doesn’t seem to tolerate standard formula? Sensitive or Gentle formulas seem to provide the solution. Nearly all of these ‘Tolerance’ formulas don’t use lactose (or at least not fully), relying on alternatives such as corn syrup solids, maltodextrin, sucrose to name a few. The point of replacing lactose with a less desirable sugar is that if a baby is lactose intolerant they will more easily digest non-lactose sugars. However, the true incidence of lactose intolerance in infants is extremely low. Remember, even in healthy infants things like spit-up, gas, crying, fussiness, constipation happen. If you have concerns about how your baby is tolerating formula discuss with your baby’s pediatrician. If all is well, consider using a formula with only lactose as a carbohydrate source to better mimic what is found in breast milk.

Why Does Sugar Matter?

The quality and quantity of sugars consumed by infants and toddlers have been found to shape their metabolic health, food preferences and the consumption of sweet, high-energy foods later in life.

While very little research has been done on how commonly used alternative sugars, like corn syrup or sucrose (table sugar), impact the health of infants, countless medical studies have linked the consumption of large quantities of sugar and high fructose corn syrup to behavioral disorders, anxiety, insomnia in older children, as well as rising rates of childhood obesity and diabetes.

How will I choose?

Ensuring your baby’s formula is packed with beneficial ingredients will help you to maximise their digestive health, biological functioning, and contribute to their lifelong well-being.

To help parents out there make a more informed decision on sugar in their baby’s formula, the Milk Drunk team sat down with Tiffani Ghere, a Clinical Registered Dietitian and Certified Lactation Educator. She holds degrees in Food Science and Nutrition Science and is Board Certified as a Pediatric Specialist. She has worked in neonatal and pediatric critical care as well as outpatient specialty clinics for 20+ years and held key positions in industry advisory boards, a global pediatric innovation society and clinical collaboratives for infant feeding best practices. So let’s just say she knows her sh*t.

Q. Milk Drunk: Why does it matter what kind of sugar is in your infant’s formula?

A. Tiffani: Different sugars are metabolized in various ways in the body. Fructose found in High Fructose Corn Syrup and sucrose (fructose +glucose) are more prone to creating fats in the liver which can lead to metabolic disease later in life. Formula with lactose (glucose+galactose) as the sugar does not contain fructose and creates less of a burden on the baby’s long term metabolic health.

Q. Milk Drunk: There’s a lot of research on how corn syrup and sucrose impact the health of older children and adults, what do you think this means for infants?

A. Tiffani: Sugar is an acquired taste and added sugars in baby formula can train a baby’s palate to become accustomed to highly sweetened foods later in life. Formula selection with sugars similar to breast milk (lactose) will help set up the baby for long term health.

Q. Milk Drunk: If babies feel uncomfortable, could it be caused by lactose?

A. Tiffani: True lactose intolerance is actually quite rare in infants. If you see changes in your baby’s stooling frequency, volume, watery stools, frequent vomiting, consult your pediatrician. Lactose may not be the only consideration for this situation. Other conditions such as cow’s milk protein allergy or infection may need to be considered. While spitting up is common in infants, an increase in frequency, volume and/or type of spit up may need to be addressed by a health professional. Consult your pediatrician to ensure you haven’t missed anything needing attention. If all checks out and baby is growing well, you may need to invest in some cute bibs and resolve to do laundry a little more frequently.

TIPS

  1. Read labels: Milk should always be the first ingredient, not sugar.
  2. Hidden sugars: Learn other names for sugar like corn syrup solids, maltodextrin, High Fructose Corn Syrup, sucrose.
  3. Never ever: Don’t use sugar, especially honey or Karo syrup to treat constipation. This old wives’ tale can be unsafe for your baby.
  4. Sweet fix: Research indicates that it is important to expose children to a wide variety of flavors and textures, but also important not to overdo it on the sugar intake at a young age.
  5. Monitor tolerance: Watch how your baby responds to any new formula.

If you want to read more research about the additional of sugars into baby formula, Tiffani suggests the following sites.

The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

Lactose intolerance and gastrointestinal cow’s milk allergy in infants and children – common misconceptions revisited

The influence of children’s diet on their cognition and behavior

Sucrose in the diet of 3-year-old Finnish children: sources, determinants and impact on food and nutrient intake

The association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake during infancy with sugar-sweetened beverage intake at 6 years of age

Early nutrition programming of long-term health

Fructose: It’s “Alcohol Without the Buzz”

Tiffani Ghere
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